Open Access Policy

Open Access, Licence and Copyright Statement

This journal embraces 'Gold' immediate open access, adhering to the principle that freely sharing research with the public facilitates a broader global exchange of knowledge. In 'Gold' open access, the published version of record is instantly, permanently, and freely accessible on the publisher's website, accompanied by a license allowing copying and reuse.

All published articles are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This license permits anyone to copy, redistribute, remix, transmit, and adapt the work, provided the original work and source are appropriately cited (see

When reproducing content, it is essential to include the complete bibliographic information (authors, title, journal, volume/issue, article ID), a link to the original publication (URL), and the copyright and license information ("Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY-NC 4.0").

Authors hold the copyright for the material published, and reprint permission requests are unnecessary. Authors have already granted permission by default, with attribution to the original source, and the publisher does not own the copyright unless explicitly stated otherwise.