Issue: Vol 11, Issue 3, Jul-Sep, 2021 :


Year : 2021 – Volume: 11 Issue: 3


Review Article

Post Liver Transplantation Diarrhea: Etiology, Evaluation and Treatment

Richa Sinha, Rahul

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Diarrhea is a frequent post-operative complication following liver transplantation. It occurs frequently in the initial 3-4 months. Common etiologic factors include immunosuppressive drugs (Mycophenolate mofetil, Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine) and infection (Clostridium difficile, Cytomegalovirus and Rotavirus infection). Inflammatory bowel disease, malignancy and graft versus host disease are infrequent but important causes. Actual incidence of Diarrhea among liver transplant recipients remains elusive as it is often under-reported. However, as per the current literature, it occurs in 10-40 percent of recipients. It can result in dehydration, dyselectrolytemia, derangement of renal profile and even graft loss. The alteration in immunosuppressive drugs in early post-operative period may predispose graft rejection. High index of suspicion and systematic evaluation is pertinent for timely diagnosis. The review summarizes the important causes, epidemiology, recent updates, evaluation and management of the of post liver transplant diarrhea. Key words: Diarrhea, Liver transplantation, Immunosuppression, Rejection, Infection.

Page No: 126-132 | Full Text


Review Article

Black Fungus (Mucormycosis) Research in India during 1998-2021: A Scopus-based Scientometric Analysis

Brij Mohan Gupta, Ghouse Modin Mamdapur, Devi Dayal

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Introduction: Mucormycosis is a well-researched infection worldwide. The Indian contribution to global Mucormycosis research remains unevaluated. Materials and Methods: Elsevier’s Scopus database was used to retrieve Indian publications on mucormycosis during 1998-2021. The extracted data were analyzed in terms of the number of publications, citation metrics, top productive organizations and authors, research collaborations, and active journals, using appropriate bibliometric tools. Results: India produced 799 publications on mucormycosis during 1998-2021. The publications grew at 8.5% annually and 175.1% cumulatively and received on average 9.6 citations per paper (CPP). Only 8.7% of publications involved international collaboration. The most researched types of mucormycosis were pulmonary and zgastrointestinal, while diabetes mellitus and diabetic ketoacidosis were the top risk factors studied. Most of the research focused on clinical studies and treatment, while genetics was the least researched aspect of mucormycosis. The top 20 of the 294 organizations and 384 authors that participated in research contributed 59.7% and 29.4% to the total national output, and 97.3% and 76.2% to total citations, respectively. The most productive organizations were PGIMER-Chandigarh, AIIMS-New Delhi, and CMC-Vellore, and the most prolific authors were A. Chakrabarti, M.R. Shivprakash, and J. Chander. Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Mycosis, and BMJ Case Reports were the high-yielding journals, whereas Medical Mycology, Mycosis, and Journal of Postgraduate Medicine were the most impactful. Conclusion: Indian research in mucormycosis has shown consistent growth during 1998-2021. There is, however, a need to improve on collaborative research and focus on emerging areas such as the genetics of mucormycosis. Key words: Mycormycosis, Invasive fungal infection, Indian publications, Bibliometrics, Scientometrics.

Page No: 133-138 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Impact of COVID-19 on Children and Adults: A Bibliometric Assessment of Global Publications

BM Gupta, M Surulinathi, Ghouse Modin Nabeesab Mamdapur, Jivesh Bansal, Madhu Bansal

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The paper presents a analysis of quantitative and qualitative dimensions of global research output (3488 records) on “Impact of COVID-19 on Children and Adolescents”, based on indexed publications in Scopus database. The global publications on this theme averaged 8.31 citations per paper. About 1.49% share of its total publications in this area received external funding support. The 145 countries partcipitated in global research output on “Impact of COVID-19 on Children and Adults”, of which the top 10 countries accounted for 85.21% and more than 100% share of global publications and citations. The USA, U.K. and Italy leads in global publications ranking and productivity as against China (3.16), U.K (1.28) and USA (1.27) leading in terms of relative of relative citation index. The 412 organizations and 661 authors participated in global research on this theme, with top 15 most productive organizations and authors contributing 21.07% and 4.30% global publications share and 38.05% and 12.98% global citations share. Harvard Medical School, USA, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China and Tongji Medical College, China leads the world as the most productive organizatons (with 480, 67 and 63 publications) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China (31.97 and 3.85), Tongji Medical College, China (19.92 and 2.40) and Children Hospital of Philadelphia, USA (19.30 and 2.32) leading as the most impactful organizations in the world in terms of citation per paper and relative citation index. D.Buonsensov, C.Calvo and X. Lu were the most productive authors (with 15, 12 and 12 papers) and X.Lu (103.83 and 12.49), A. Licari ( 40.11 and 4.83) and G.L. Marseglia( 34.09 and 4.1) were the most impactful authors. JAMA Pediatrics, Pediatrics Infectious Disease Journal and Acta Paediatrica International Journal of Pediatrics were the most productive journals (with 71, 60 and 58 papers) and Pediatrics (36.59, JAMA Pediatrics (19.49) and Acta Paediatrica International Journal of Pediatrics (14.93) were the most impactful journals. Key words: COVID-19, Impact, Children, Adolescents, Global, Publications, Scientometrics, Bibliometrics.

Page No: 139-145 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Adherence to Infection Prevention and Control Practices among Health Care Workers and its Outcome in Non-COVID Areas in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Mini Palathingal Narayanan, Anuja Mohan, Priya Chandran, Durga Neelakandan, Beena Philomina Jose

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Aim and Objective: 1. To study the adherence to Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) practices by health care workers in Non-COVID areas. 2. To compare the proportion of COVID affected health care workers among those adhering to proper IPC and those with non-adherence. Background: Hospitals serve as frontline health care institutions caring for the increased number of COVID-19 patients. The health care personnel working in hospitals are at increased risk of acquiring the disease during the pandemic. It is the prime responsibility of the Hospital Infection Control Committee to protect the health care workers (HCW) and prevent nosocomial transmission. Materials and Methods: In the cross sectional study,all health care workers from non-COVID areas of the hospital who were exposed to COVID-19 patient during the study period were assessed according to the risk assessment criteria. Results: A total of 1049 health care workers had contact with COVID-19 patients. Of this only 6 health care workers were diagnosed with COVID-19. Conclusion: The HCW diagnosed with COVID-19 was less than one percentage of exposed. This implies the impact that the IPC training had on the HCW which made them ensure their own safety and prevent the nosocomial spread of SARS-CoV-2 within the hospital. Key words: Adherence, Nosocomial infection, Frontline health care workers.

Page No: 146-149 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Health Promoting and Lifestyle Behaviour Changes among People on Quarantine as a Consequences of COVID-19 Pandemic an Online Cross-sectional Study

Aasim Ur Rehman Ganie, Irtifa Mukhter, Rituparna Dey, Mehreena Manzoor

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Background: Practising and promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours have been one of the major challenges during the COVID-19 Pandemic due to lockdown measures and mandatory isolation. The changing lifestyle concerns and anxiety and stress due to uncertainty about this pandemic have been considered negative implications of COVID-19. Aim: The current study was undertaken to assess the participants’ health promoting lifestyle profile due to the COVID-19 related quarantine and isolation. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was used to assess the participants’ health-related lifestyle profile due to COVID-19 related quarantine measures. Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile -II and socio-demographic sheet with behaviours and practices questions were used to assess changes in health promoting lifestyle behaviours using online platform. Results: The health promoting lifestyle survey was completed by the (n- 126) participants. The lowest mean scores on the health promoting lifestyle profile questionnaire were found in the domains of physical activity (mean=17.57), health responsibility (mean=20.17) and management of stress (mean=21.09) during the lockdown whereas the highest scores were found in domains of nutrition (mean=23.67), spiritual growth (mean=25.27), and interpersonal relationships (mean=24.15). A significant reduction in the physical activity was coupled with increase in high calorie intake among the participants. Participants were found to have sustained at least one meaningful relationship during the lockdown and regularly attending educational programs on personal health care. Conclusion: The pandemic has witnessed a downfall in physical activities, sleep patterns and increase in nutrition and stress levels among the participants creating a vulnerability of developing metabolic syndromes and affecting immunity. Suggests need for bringing strategies for promoting healthy lifestyle to prevent the occurrence of such metabolic concerns in future epidemics and pandemics. Key words: COVID-19, Lifestyle, Sedentary Behaviours, Lockdown, Physical Activity.

Page No: 150-154 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Cross-Cultural Validation and Adaptation of the Moroccan Version of the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Scale: CONTILIFE

Nada Otmani, Nabil Tachfouti, Angéla Filankembo, Nadia Benaicha, Mariam Atassi, Khaoula El Kinany, Amina Chrifi Alaoui, Noura Qarmiche, Samira El Fakir

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Objectives: The objective of this study is to adapt and validate, the CONTILIFE, a quality of life questionnaire, in Moroccan dialect, and to assess its psychometric properties in women suffering from urinary incontinence. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 women were enrolled in the study. The reliability, construct validity, and clinical validity were assessed using the standardized procedures. Results: The results showed that the Moroccan version of the CONTILIFE has very good psychometric properties. Internal consistency was found to be strong (Cronbach’s α: 0.87 to 0.96). The inter-rater reliability, and the test-retest for the global score and de six subscale’s scores were too well. Results for multitrait scaling analysis showed that all items exceeded the 0.4 criterion for convergent validity in all scales. Item-discriminant validity was 100% successful for all items. Conclusion: The Moroccan version of the CONTILIFE is a valid and reliable tool to assess the impact of urinary incontinence on health-related quality of life in Moroccan women. Key words: Contilife, Quality of Life, Reliability, Validity, Urinary Incontinence.

Page No: 155-159 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Childhood Morbidity and its Association with Socio-economic and Health Care Condition among Under 5 Years Children in West Bengal: An Evidence from NFHS-5, 2019-20

Koustav Ghosh, Shoummo Sen Gupta, Atreyee Sinha Chakraborty

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Introduction: Child health issue is a public health concern in India and the country has already set its goal to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs) target to reduce under-five mortality to 25 per 1000 live births by 2030. A good socio-economic condition and health care facility can reduce child morbidity and mortality. Objectives: The present study aims to show the pattern of morbidity among under-five children and its association with socio-economic and health care condition in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out from district level fact-sheets of NFHS-5 (2019-20). Dimension Indices (DI) are developed for the indicators of child morbidity, health care and socio-economic status. Bivariate analyses are performed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Multivariate analyses are carried out using simple linear regression model. Results: Results show Purulia district of West Bengal represents a highest level of child morbidity and North Twenty-Four Parganas district as a low level of child morbidity status ; whereas, both districts show reverse status in the case of socio-economic and health care context. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient of child morbidity is negatively related with socio-economic (-0.54) and health care status (-0.62) and in both the cases they are significantly different from zero (P<0.05). Availability of electricity, women literacy, improved sanitation facility and child immunization are negatively correlated with child morbidity. Conclusion: The study recommends targeting the districts with high child morbidity, poor socio-economic and health care status and suggest improvements to reduce the same by facilitating improved sanitation facility, increase in women literacy and full immunization. Key words: Child Health, Morbidity, Mortality, Under-five Child, Socio-economic condition, Health care status.

Page No: 160-163 | Full Text


Case Report

Exophiala jeanselmei as a Rare Cause of Chromoblastomycosis in India: A Case Report

Abhijit Kumar Prasad, Soni Gandhi, Binod Kumar Thakur, Wihiwot Valarie Lyngdoh

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Exophiala jeanselmei, a dematiaceous hyphomycete commonly found in soil, decaying vegetation, and rotting wood is one of the lesser common organisms to be associated with Chromoblastomycosis (CBM). It is more commonly associated with subcutaneous infection such as Mycetoma in patients who are engaged in agricultural activities and in phaeohyphomycosis mostly in patients who have undergone organ transplant. Here, we report a rare case of CBM caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in an elderly patient with apparently no predisposing disease condition. Exophiala spp. as an etiological agent of CBM is rare esp. in India. Key words: Chromoblastomycosis, CBM, Exophiala jeanselmei, Dematiaceous fungi, Sclerotic body. Key Messages: Exophiala jeanselmei is a common etiological agent associated with subcutaneous infection like Mycetoma and phaeohyphomycosis. However, it is not as commonly associated with Chromoblastomycosis wherein the presence of sclerotic body in direct KOH mount is pathognomic of the disease. Here, we report a rare case of CBM caused by Exophiala jeanselmei in an elderly patient with apparently no predisposing disease condition.

Page No: 164-167 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Population Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Experiences from a Drive-thru Testing Center

Kenneth Andrew Hoekstra

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Aim/Background: Public health has a unique opportunity to connect with the psychology of the population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Beginning May 2020 and ending March 12, 2021, the Skagit County Health Department provided a drivethru COVID-19 testing center during the weekdays for community members and healthcare workers. Test results were typically returned in 1-3 days. Results: The drive-thru COVID-19 testing model provided the healthcare worker the opportunity to consult with individuals presenting for COVID-19 testing. Public health listened closely, answered the public’s questions and provided additional healthcare information when needed and requested. Conclusion: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 drive-thru testing centers have emerged world-wide. For healthcare and public health workers, these centers have allowed for additional conversation on topics related to community mental health. Key words: COVID-19, Psychological, Stress, Testing, Drive-thru.

Page No: 168-169 | Full Text