Issue: Vol 10, Issue 2, Apr-Jun, 2020 :


Year : 2020 – Volume: 10 Issue: 2


Review Article

Comprehensive Diabetes Management- What Does it Means?

Maram Alshareef

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Diabetes is a chronic disease that has a health and economic burden on the patient and the health care system. Diabetes control means prevention of the Complications which need patient and health care provider collaboration in addition to the health care system support. A multidisciplinary and an interdisciplinary team approach is needed to provide a omprehensive care in the early stage of the disease. Psychotherapy can play a role to improve patient cognition and acceptance of the disease which is very important step toward successful management. Biopsychosocial model approach the patient from all health aspects rather than the biological disease alone and all the health care team providers must be trained to adopt this approach. Key words: Comprehensive Diabetes management, Psychotherapy, Bio-psychosocial model.

Page No: 51-53 | Full Text


Original Research Article

An Epidemiologic Study of Patients Presenting with Burns and Scald Injuries to a Government Medical College Hospital in Karnataka

Ramakrishna Siddaya, Subhas Babu Puttamaligaiah, Harish Bekkalale Rudresh, Nagaraja Goud Bhoompuram, Vinay Muninarayanaswamy

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As per the World Health Organization’s Global burden of disease (GBD) estimates in 2004 about 3,10,000 people (30% of them under 20 yrs of age) died due to burn injuries and 237500 in 2013 as per GBD 2013. In terms of years of life lost, deaths/ injuries due to fire ranked 25th in 1990 and 34th in 2013. In India, as per data released by National Crime Record Bureau in the year 2013, electrocution and fire accidents were responsible for 2.6% and 5.5% of the total deaths due to accidents respectively. Injury due to burns leads to significant mortality and morbidity, so this study was done with the following objectives. To determine the profile of the victims of burns and scald injuries treated at the MIMS hospital. To quantify the morbidity, mortality due to burns and scalds in patients treated in MIMS hospital. To determine the reasons for burns/ scald injuries among the victims. Methodology: A Cross sectional, hospital based study was done sourcing data from medical records of admitted patients from January 2013 to December 2013. Results and Discussion: The total number of patients admitted with burn injuries during the study period were 217 of which 189 sustained burns/ scald injuries and the remaining sustained electrical burn injuries. 122 were aged between 16-35 yrs. Of the 189 people who sustained burns/ scald injuries 33 were children aged 15 yrs or less. The risk of females sustaining critical burn injuries (>25% body surface area) was statistically significant in adults. Key words: Burns and Scalds, Injuries, Epidemiology, Government Medical College, Karnataka.

Page No: 54-57 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Assessment of Diet Diversity and Eating Pattern of Undergraduate Students: A Pan India Study

Abhishek Kumar, Arshad Ayub, Ria Roy, Aradhna Rai, Bhini Ameta, Ashmi Latheef, Aradhna Rani, Aysha, Ashmil Muhammad Ali, Azad, Ashtami, Aradhna Rani, Avinash Pathak, Shamshad Ahmad, Pragya Kumar

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Introduction: Dietary diversity has been universally identified as a key element of high quality diets. The tendency among undergraduate students with poor dietary patterns is high, due to lack of parental supervision, incorrect knowledge regarding food habits, stress of academic, professional and social life. This study was carried out to assess the diet diversity and eating pattern of undergraduate students of various colleges in India. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 3046 undergraduate students across India by filling the online questionnaire shared through social media. The data on dietary diversity was collected by asking the number of consumed food groups in previous 24hr from the total food groups described by FAO, with anthropometric measurements. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Results: Mean age of participants was 20.7±1.9 years, the majority being females. About 42.2% student’s skipped breakfast 1-2 times per week and another 28.5% skipped 3 or more times. About 34.7% had poor DDS (Dietary Diversity Score) whereas 28.5% had good DDS. Higher DDS mean was found in males (3.67) than females (3.23), overall mean being 3.4. Among 869 people with good DDS, 63.1% had normal BMI and 57.1% availed their meals from mess. There is significant distribution of DDS among different regions (p=0.0007), graduation streams (p=0.0014) and source of meals (p<0.001). Conclusion: In this study, the diet diversity of about three-fourth participants was inadequate, showing their improper habit of food consumption and results also indicated their unhealthy eating pattern. Adequate dietary practice is recommended. Key words: Diet diversity, Eating pattern, Undergraduate students, Anthropometric measurement, BMI.

Page No: 58-63 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Prevalence of Foodborne Infections among Students in Dangbo Commune (Benin Republic) In 2018

Gouthon Gilchrist Fabrice, Bio Nigan Issiako, Paraïso Moussiliou, Kouassi Jean-Paul, Tévoédjrè Doréana Frida1, Ouendo Edgard-Marius Dona

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Introduction: Common foodborne illness and foodborne diseases are responsible for many deaths, especially among children who, compared to adults, observe much less hygiene. This study aims to determine the most common foodborne infections among middle school students in Dangbo commune in Benin. Methods: To this end, the study involved 318 adolescent students, including 161 boys from the 6th, 5th and 4th grades, selected according to the nonrandom method and the reasoned choice technique. The collection tools used were collection tools used was a questionnaire and an interview guide that took into account students’ health data. Results: Out of all students surveyed, 76.7% acknowledged the occurrence of foodborne infections on an irregular basis. These infections occurred regularly in 9.7% of respondents. Diarrhoea and stomach aches following the consumption of meals at school are the main foodborne infections cited by 61.6% and 13.8% of students respectively. Conclusion: The high frequency of diarrhoea requires action on behaviour and the environment to reduce it in students. Key words: Rural community, Adolescents, Common foodborne diseases, Foodborne diseases, Benin. Key Message: In the commune of Dangbo, in the Republic of Benin, food infections, of which diarrhoea is the main manifestation, are common among students, with diarrhoea as the main manifestation.

Page No: 64-67 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Attitude of Dental Students for Personal and Professional Concerns about Rural Dental Practice

Susanthi R, Lalchhuanawma, Sumit Gupta, Maneesha Das, Vala Vikram Kumar, Sreetama Chatterjee, Abhishek Singh Nayyar

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Context and Aim: The shortage of health professionals in rural areas contributes towards adiscriminatory health care delivery. Accessibility of health services is a multidimensional concept that refers to geographical, economic (affordability), organizational and cultural (acceptability) factors that can facilitate and/or, hinder the use of services in rural areas. Oral health is an integral part of general health. Though highly preventable, oral diseases are the most common chronic diseases amongst all age groups. Furthermore, accessing dental services is particularly hard for people from the underserved and rural areas. Thus, the impact of dental care crisis has been and continues to be greater in rural areas. To add to this, paucity of dentists practicing in rural areas with the preference of dentists to locate their practices in urban areas does not bode well for the future of dental care for the rural population in the near future, too. Attitude of dental students plays an important role in determining the future dental work force in rural areas. With this background, the present study attempted to evaluate the attitude of dental students towards rural dental practice based on gender and year of education. Materials and Methods: The present study was based on a cross-sectional study design with 30-item questionnaire survey instrument employed and distributed amongst the undergraduate and postgraduate dental students. The questionnaire comprised of four parts including the first part which focused on information regarding the demographic details and opinion about the rural dental practice, the second part dealt with the professional concerns perceived regarding rural dental practice while the third and fourth parts dealt with the personal and general concerns of the dental students regarding the rural dental practice respectively. Anonymity and confidentiality of the respondents was given utmost importance while participation in the study was kept voluntary. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The said data was analyzed for descriptive and inferential statistics. Independent student’s t-test and One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for comparison among the variables while chisquare test was used to determine association between the variables. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: From a total of 550 dental students, 428 respondents completed the questionnaire (Response Rate: 77.8%). No significant difference was observed in the attitude of the students based on gender (p = 0.43) while a statistically significant difference was observed in the attitude of students based on the year of their education with a positive attitude towards rural dental practice generally noted in the first year Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) students which significantly declined with the increasing level of education (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Dental students are more influenced by the negative aspects of rural dental practice though they have, in their mind, a positive approach for the same at the beginning of their education but this significantly declined with

Page No: 68-76 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) among the Elderly of Guwahati City, Assam: A Cross-sectional Study

Anku Moni Saikia, Vinoth Rajendran

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Background: WHO defines “Healthy Ageing” as the process of developing and maintaining the functional ability that enables well-being in older age. The population among the elderly is growing constantly and with increased life expectancy, there is a tremendous increase in morbidity and disability. MCI is an intermediate stage between dementia and cognitive decline in normal individuals. It is important to understand various factors associated with MCI to develop preventive strategies. Objectives: To find out the prevalence and risk factors of mild cognitive impairment among the elderly in Guwahati, Assam. Settings and Design: A communitybased, cross-sectional study was conducted in Guwahati City. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among the elderly of 60 years or above of both the sexes in Guwahati City. Considering p=14.89%, sample size was calculated as 576 elderly. Fifty percent of the total wards i.e. 16 wards were selected randomly and 36 elderly were selected from each ward. The data were collected using a predesigned and pretested schedule, Hindi Mini-Mental State Examination (HMMSE) scale for mild cognitive impairment, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) of Katz Index and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) of Lawton Index for functional status. Results: The prevalence of MCI was 24.2%. The risk factors like gender, living arrangement, education, alcohol consumption, constipation, sleep disturbance were associated with mild cognitive impairment on binary logistic regression. Conclusion: A very high prevalence of MCI was found among the elderly. Various modifiable risk factors like living arrangement, education, alcohol consumption, sleep disturbance and depression were found to be associated with MCI and it can be targeted to prevent MCI. Key words: Prevalence, Mild cognitive impairment, Elderly, HMMSE, Assam. Key Messages: The prevalence of MCI was found high among the elderly which requires mandatory inclusion of screening for cognitive function.

Page No: 77-80 | Full Text


Original Research Article

A Retrospective Clinico-pathologic Analysis of 100 Breast Cancer Cases: Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital of Coastal India

Pradipta Das, Pradipta Kishore Khuntia, Rajashree Das, Abhishek Singh Nayyar

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Background and Aim: Breast cancers are relatively rare among young women amounting up to 6% of all breast carcinoma cases reported in that age group. In younger age groups, breast cancers, though, have a more aggressive behavior and poorer outcome in comparison to patients in the elderly age groups. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histopathological characteristics of breast carcinomas reported in patients lesser than 40 years of age. Materials and Methods: Surgical specimens of carcinoma breast received at the Department of Pathology in a tertiary care hospital for a period of 2 years from January 2014 to December 2015 were included in the study. The histo-pathological slides were reviewed and clinical data was collected from the archival records and compared. Statistical analysis was done using IBM SPSS statistics 17 (Chicago, USA). Various tumor characteristics were correlated with the morphological features and the other clinico-pathologic data using Chi-square value (c2), paired t-test and Fischer’s test. p<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma-Not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) was found to be the most common variant of breast carcinoma in both the younger and the elderly age groups followed by the invasive lobular carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma in the younger and invasive lobular carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma and papillary carcinoma in the elderly age groups. Also, stage II followed by stage III were the commonest stages reported in the younger and elderly age groups based on their prevalence as against stage I and IV (p=0.006). Conclusion: Breast cancers diagnosed in younger age groups present with an aggressive behavior and poorer outcome in comparison to patients in the elderly age groups. Also, such cancers often tend to present with advanced stages of the disease process and high grades of tumor with lymph nodal involvement and metastasis at the time they are first diagnosed conferring an inferior prognosis illustrating the need for more clinical trials to be conducted on younger patients with breast cancers with an aim to improve the overall outcome in this age group. Key words: Breast cancers, Tertiary care settings, Younger age groups, TNM staging, Histo-pathology.

Page No: 81-84 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Physical and Psychosocial Burdens of Burn Treatment Experienced by Women Admitted in Nigerian Hospitals

Chinweuba Anthonia Ukamaka, Chinweuba Ifunanya Stellamaris, Anetekhai Chinenye Juliet, Wasini Kenneth Belibodei

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Background: Burn treatment remains a major public health concern despite advances in healthcare delivery. This study aimed to determine the burden experienced by female burn patients admitted into Nigerian hospitals and the modifying variables. Materials and Methods: The recruitment criteria of the forty-five women in this mixed-method cross-sectional descriptive study were: >30% total body surface area burnt, ≥2-weeks admission stay, absent co-morbidities and voluntary consent. Using one probing question and validated, structured ‘Burden of Burn Treatment Interview Guide’, data were collected on physical discomfort, lifestyle changes, altered body image, social function limitations and anxiety/depression. Descriptive analyses yielded frequencies, percentages, means and standard-deviations while t-test for independence and linear regression at 95% CI were used for Inferences. Qualitative data were subjected to conventional content analysis. Results: Mean age of participants was 30.3 years; seven lived below Nigerian minimum wage of NGN 18,000/month; and average length of hospital stay (LHS) was 40days. Leading burdens were social deprivation, huge financial demands, physical restrictions and unfriendly care-provider attitude. Income, LHS, occupation, parity and age modify respondent’s experienced degree of treatment burden (p<.05). Conclusion: Female burn patients in Nigeria are burdened by separation from home, high treatment cost and poor care-provider attitude. Women with children under their care are more emotionally burdened by prolonged hospitalisation. Quality improvement strategies including zero tolerance for thirddelay in initiating care, establishment of burn-care trust fund and/or pay-as-you-earn policy are recommended. Similar studies on male population will provide bases for concretizing the effect size of femininity on the treatment burden. Key words: Body Image, Burns, Economic Status, Health Personnel, Quality of Health Care, Social Stigma.

Page No: 85-91 | Full Text


Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Patients Regarding Cross-infection and Infection Control in Dental College and Hospital, Nashik

Aishwarya Mahajan, Shruti Shankarrao Lendhey, Triveni Kale

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Aim and Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of patients attended dental clinics at MGVS KBH Dental College and Hospital, Nashik regarding cross-infection and infection control in dentistry. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1200 patients who attended the dental clinics. A standardized, confidential, anonymous, interviewing questionnaire was used. The level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of patients attended dental clinics was assessed by 10 Multiple choice questions. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of patients were assessed by answering 10 statements on a three-point Likert scale. Patient’s self-reported practices were also evaluated. The descriptive and inferential statistics was done. Results: The study revealed that 48.6%, 29.3% and 22.1% of the participants had poor, fair and satisfactory levels of knowledge about infection and infection control in dentistry, respectively. Participant’s educational level was significantly associated with the level of knowledge about dental infection. Patients had positive attitudes towards infection control in dentistry. Regarding self-reported practice, almost half of the participants had asked dentists about sterilization of dental instruments (45.8%), wearing a face mask (24.5%) and gloves (32.3%). Conclusion: Participants had good attitudes towards infection control in dentistry. However, their knowledge and practice need improvements. Awareness should be increased about cross-infection and infection control in dentistry through mass media, TV programs, camps, posters, etc. Key words: Cross-infection, Infection control, Awareness, Practice.

Page No: 92-95 | Full Text