Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity (CHO) has gradually increased in India over the past two decades and has necessitated advanced research to address it. Assessing CHO-related research conducted so far is necessary to guide future research. However, a bibliometric assessment of Indian CHO research is unavailable. Aim: The study aimed to map the CHO research published in India during the last two decades. Materials and Methods: The publication data was retrieved from Elsevier’s Scopus database using a predefined search strategy. The quality of publications was assessed using indicators such as citations per paper (CPP), relative citation index (RCI), and Hirsch index (HI). Results: India contributed 705 (1.8%) to a global total of 37,762 publications and is currently ranked 15th in CHO-related research; the top 3 countries are the USA, UK, and Australia with 38.1%, 9.6%, and 6.5% publication share respectively. The annual growth in India’s publications was 27.4% compared to the global average of 8.7%. The research quality has declined (average CPP 50.6 during 2002-2011 and 25.4 during 2012-2021). Only 25.2% of publications were internationally collaborative. The most productive organizations were AIIMS, New Delhi, PGIMER, Chandigarh, and St. John’s Research Institute, Bengaluru, whereas Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, J&K, and Sitaram Bhartia Institute of Science and Research, New Delhi were the most impactful. CS Yajnik, N Tandon, and V Khadilkar were the most prolific, whereas A Laxmaiah, HPS Sachdev, and V Mohan were the most impactful authors. Seven of the ten top productive journals were Indian, but only three were among the most impactful. Conclusion: India lags in CHO research behind other countries having similar current and future projections for the prevalence of CHO. Its research output, but not impact, has increased over the past two decades. India’s international collaboration in CHO research is meager. Our analysis identifies the contributions of various stakeholders in addressing CHO and provides a framework for researchers, policymakers, organizations, and national government for future research to develop interventions for effective prevention and control of CHO.