Introduction: Health authorities across the world have implemented non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing measures and hand hygiene campaigns in response to COVID-19. However, the adoption of health-protective behaviour by individuals in alignment with these interventions, although effective, is variable. Results: Evidence suggests that increases in perceived disease severity, disease susceptibility and intervention efficacy correlate with the adoption of protective behaviours. Additionally, external cues from select, credible sources promote behavioural adoption whilst barriers to behavioural change, such as the opportunity cost faced by the employed, dissuade adoption. Lastly, demographic and socioeconomic factors play a role with men, the young, those with lower educational status and those less socially connected being less likely to adopt protective behaviours. Conclusion: For health authorities, an understanding of these correlates can better inform efforts to increase adherence to NPIs and stem novel viral transmission. Approaches such as risk personalisation, the communication of evidence-based effects of interventions and education regarding lesserused behaviours (e.g., mask-wearing) are discussed. Also highlighted is the importance of consistent communication via local actors such as General Practitioners and the role of multilevel social networks. Lastly, the need for tailored efforts to enhance protective behaviour adoption in specific sub-populations is considered.