Background: Morbidities have emerged as major threats to livelihoods of the poor. An estimated 150 million have been reported as spending more than 40% of their income on their health needs. Aim: To identify the determinants of enrolment and experiences of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) benefi ciaries in Udupi district, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Udupi district between March and August 2012. A mixed method approach using qualitative and quantitative methods was used. The study included all households who were eligible under the RSBY scheme recognized by the Planning Commission of India as below poverty line (BPL) households and participants recruited above 18 years of age. The sample included in the study was 316 households and took into account 95% confi dence interval and 20% precision. Results: Education of the household head, marital status, household size and awareness of the cost of enrollment to RSBY were seen to be signifi cantly associated with enrollment to RSBY (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis of four variables which showed statistical signifi cance including household size, marital status, education, and prior awareness about the cost of enrollment into RSBY showed that prior knowledge of the cost of enrollment into the scheme and household size of less than five were major determinants to enrolling for RSBY. On qualitative analysis, the majority of the scheme users reported that the enrolment under RSBY had benefi tted them and they are willing to renew the scheme again in the next round of enrollment. Conclusions: The awareness on scheme details among those included in the present study was found to be low. Information and education campaigns could improve involvement of both the insurers as well as the local institutions offering care and possibly increase utilization rate of RSBY.