Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease related to low birth weight, prematurity, oxygen administration, and various other factors, which are yet to be identified. Aims: The aim was to find incidence of ROP and risk factors for causation in babies weighing <1800 g; and in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Neonates weighing ≤1800 g taking birth in our institution from January 2011 to January 2012 for a span of 1 year; were included in the study. The data were analyzed to determine risk factors for ROP causation. Information was collected using the standardized performa which included the maternal risk factors as well. Infants were classified by ophthalmologic examination findings using ICROP revisited. Statistics: Qualitative data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher’s exact test and possible risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 278 subjects was included in the study. Incidence of ROP in babies ≤1800 g was found to be 13.67% (38/278). Incidence of ROP in babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g was 11.64% (17/146). Twenty-one risk factors were significant on univariate analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and 18 risk factors in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Multiple gestations (P < 0.01), blood transfusion (P < 0.01), antepartum hemorrhage (P < 0.01), pregnancy-induced hypertension (P < 0.01), mechanical ventilation (MV) (P < 0.01), and APGAR at 1 min (P < 0.01) were found to be independently significant for ROP causation on logistic regression analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and MV (P < 0.01) and resuscitation (P < 0.01) were significant for babies weighing 1501-1800 g. Conclusion: It should be considered to incorporate screening of babies ≤1800 g uniformly in developing nations. It is recommended that further studies be done taking representative population of babies in different sites with adequate follow-up.