Background: Hemoglobinopathies comprising of thalassemias and various hemoglobin (Hb) variants continue to plague the health system of India. Aims: To find out the prevalence of various hemoglobinopathies in the study population and to identify any association with the various ethnic groups residing in rural community of Darjeeling district, West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Naxalbari block of Darjeeling district, West Bengal from June 2011 to August 2011, involving hemoglobin variant screening by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method of 188 antenatal women, selected through multistage random sampling technique. Results: 26.6% of mothers had abnormal hemoglobin, the commonest being the Hemoglobin E (Hb E) trait (15.42%). The prevalence of homozygous HbE, HbE thalassemia, -thalassemia trait and hemoglobin S-trait in the studied population was 6.91%, 0.53%, 2.12% and 1.06% respectively. There was a single case of the rare hemoglobin J Meerut. Among those having abnormal hemoglobin, 66% belonged to one ethnic group, Rajbanshis. A statistically significant association was noted between Hb E syndrome (comprising of HbE trait, homozygous HbE, HbE-betathalassemia) and Rajbanshis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings suggest a high prevalence of hemoglobinopathies particularly Hb E in the studied population, especially Rajbanshis and warrant the need of wider community-based initiative for carrier detection and awareness generation.