Background: Placenta is a transient embryonic organ of communication between mother and fetus during pregnancy and is the only channel for transfer of nutrition as well as other factors from mother to fetus. Placental tissues from humans contain leptin and its receptors. As already known leptin is an endocrine hormone and growth factor that is important for the regulation of body fat, feeding and energy homeostasis and also plays a crucial role. Objectives: To assess and compare the expression of leptin in the products of consumption during early gestation (5 to 12 weeks) from mothers of low and high socioeconomic status groups (LSEG and HSEG) and to relate to their nutritional status. Material: Products of conception obtained at 5 to 12 weeks of gestation, from healthy women undergoing medical termination of pregnancy constituted the study material. Methodology: A total about 18 placental samples from low and 11 from high socio economic group (HSEG) were examined. Products of conception obtained from the scrapings of basal plate after vacuum extraction following termination of pregnancy were stored in formalin. Sections from basal plate were selected and stained for leptin. Imuuno histochemical stained sections were studied for percentage of villi, percentage of cytotrophoblast and percentage of stained positive blood vessels as well as intensity of staining pattern were carried out by using kits (Santa Cruz, Biotechnology, California). Nutritional status of the subjects were measured by recording weight, height, hemoglobin, serum retinol, serum folic acid and serum zinc levels. Results: Percentage of villi staining positively for leptin was significantly higher 80.7% (P<0.05) in the undernourished group when compared to well nourished 70.8% but expression of leptin in Cytotrophoblast (CTB) was significantly 59.7% (P<0.05) higher in well-nourished group. Conclusion: Expression of leptin in villi was significantly higher in the undernourished groups as compared to well nourished group.